The company which would become Gand & Bernardel was founded by Charles François Gand (1787-1845), who was apprenticed to Nicolas Lupot and succeeded to Lupot’s business in 1824 through his marriage to Lupot’s adopted daughter. Charles François was succeeded by his son Charles Adolphe (1812-1866) and when he was joined by his brother Charles Nicolas Eugène in 1855 the business became ‘Gand Frères’. On the death of Charles Adolphe in 1866 the company combined with that of Auguste Bernardel (1798-1870) and his sons Ernest (1826-1899) and Gustave Adolphe (1832-1904) to become ‘Gand & Bernardel Frères’. Ernest retired in 1886, and the shop became ‘Gand & Bernardel’, and from 1892 was simply ‘Bernardel’. Gustave retired in 1901, and the business was taken over by Albert Caressa (1866-1939) and Emile Français (1894-1984), known jointly as ‘Caressa & Français’. The company was known for its expertise and restorations, and well over 2,000 fine instruments were made by the Gands and Bernardels, and the many skilled workmen in their employ. Their instruments tend to be highly consistent and well executed Stradivari copies, drawing on the tradition of their predecessor Lupot and covered in a rich wine-red varnish.